Self-Assembly & Self-Organization
"Self-Assembly is a process by which disordered parts build an ordered structure through only local interaction. In self-assembling systems, individual parts move towards a final state, whereas in self-organizing systems, components move between multiple states, oscillate and may never come to rest in a final configuration."
Phase Change Materials
"Granular jammable materials are structurally disordered solids, often made up of particles, that can instantly and reversibly transition from a non-solid, liquid-like, state into a solid state."
Programmable Materials & 4D Printing
"Programmable Matter is the science, engineering and design of physical matter that has the ability to change form and/or function in a programmable manner. 4D Printing, where the 4th dimension is time, is one recent example of PM that allows objects to be printed and self-transform in shape and material property when subjected to energy."
"Transformable Structures are designed to physically transform their design, form, and function to create dynamic structures for our fluctuating needs and environmental demands"